The three doctors, all of whom are surgeons—Franco Giovannini, M.D., Riccardo Benzi Cipelli, M.D., and Giampaolo Pisano, M.D.—examined freshly drawn blood of more than a thousand patients using direct observation under microscopes to see what was happening in the blood.
Their results were published in the International Journal of Vaccine Theory, Practice, and Research in August 2022.
For this study, the Italian doctors used optical microscopy, that is, regular light microscopes, to examine the blood. Blood cells are easily visible under a microscope. Their shape, type, and how and if they are aggregated—clumped together—can help the skilled physician better understand the patient’s health.
In their 60-page peer-reviewed study, the Italian researchers reported case studies from their observations. Although they could not explain what they observed, they noted in the study that what they saw was so strange that they felt the need to alert the medical community.
The light or optical microscope uses visible light and a series of lenses to magnify small images.
Unlike electron microscopy, light microscopy provides a direct image of what is under the lens. With light microscopy, scientists can either use a bright white background behind the cells, with the light shining from behind the slide, or they can use a dark background.
This technique, which is called dark-field or dark-ground microscopy, works by blocking the backlighting and bouncing the light around from the side in order to make the slide stand out from the dark background. Dark-field microscopy uses a special aperture to focus the light so the background stays dark. The light will not pass directly through the sample, and no staining is required, so living cells do not need to be killed to be studied. For this research, the doctors used dark-field microscopy.